Minimum Standards for Producing braille

UKAAF produce a set of minimum standards for producing a range of accessible formats including braille

Braille coding standards

This page contains a list of published standards for braille in the UK. Unified English Braille was only implemented in the UK in 2015. As such there is still a lot of braille available in the original Standard English Braille. You can find information on SEB in the Standards Archive

If you have any questions about braille rules, please feel free to contact UKAAF and we will try and assist. You may also find the braille mailing lists helpful.

Note: if you are accessing electronic print versions, you may need the Windows TrueType braille font used to show braille cells. If you do not have this already, the font can be downloaded from

Unified English Braille (UEB)

All information about UEB is on the UEB page.

Unified Welsh Braille (UWB)

UWB has been developed to reflect the changes made to the English braille code by the implementation of UEB.

Unified Irish Braille (UIB)

Our colleagues at Irish National Braille and Alternative Format Association (INBAF) have developed and maintain the braille code for the Irish language. For further information on the code please visit their website page

Scottish Braille

There is no formal code for Scottish Gaelic. The suggested format is uncontracted Unified English Braille, using the appropriate accented letters

Presentation guidelines

UKAAF has prepared some Guiding Principles on the Presentation of Braille to ensure that basic braille being produced in the UK can be read easily by braille users. Topics include headings, paragraphs, notes and basic tables. Examples are included:

International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet Braille Code – This is now an internationally agreed code published by ICEB, updated 2008. The IPA Braille Code is available from here.

Chess Code

Braille Chess code and layout

Braille Music

The Braille Music Code is an internationally agreed standard.

The “New International Manual of Braille Music Notation” (revised in 1996) compiled by Bettye Krolick, published by SVB, Amsterdam, 1997, ISBN: 90 – 9009269 – 2. , is a full guide to the current braille music code for reference purposes.

You can also visit from where there is a link to braille music tutor books and details for purchase and loan.